Esther M. Zimmer Lederberg
Published Works

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  1. Hollaender, A. and Zimmer, E. M., January 1945 (September, 1944), "The effect of ultraviolet radiation and X-rays on mutation production in Penicilllium notatum", Genetics Society of America 30(1):8
    Also: Genetics, 30:19-20 Abstract submitted to the September 12-14, 1944 Meeting of the Genetics Society of America
    Click to see relevant reference

  2. Hollaender, A., Sansome E. R., Zimmer, E., Demerec, M., April 1945, "Quantitative Irradiation Experiments with Neurospora crassa. II. Ultraviolet Irradiation", American Journal of Botany 32(4):226-235
    Also: "Quantitative effects of radiation on mutation production in Neurospora crassa", Records of the Genetics Society of America, Number Thirteen, 1944

    See an incomplete relevant historical account in:
    Perspectives: Anecdotal, Historical and Critical Commentaries on Genetics, Edited by James F. Crow and William F. Dove, "50 Years Ago: The Neurospora Revolution", by Norman H. Horowitz, Genetics 127, April 1991, 631-635. It is pointed out that papers in the early 1940s about Neurospora crassa were of immediate importance in leading to modern bacterial genetics.
    Click to see relevant reference

  3. Zimmer, E. M., May 7, 1946, "AMINO ACID CATABOLISM OF CLOSTRIDIUM, A STRICT ANAEROBE", (unpublished paper)
    Click to see relevant reference


  5. Giles, N. H. Jr., Lederberg, E. Z., March, 1948, "Induced reversions of biochemical mutants in Neurospora crassa", American Journal of Botany 35(3):150-157

  6. Lederberg, E. M., November 1948, "The mutability of several lac mutants of Escherichia coli", Genetics 33(6):617
    Abstract: 1948, Genetics Society of America 17:45-46

  7. Lederberg, E. Z., 1950, "GENETIC CONTROL OF MUTABILITY IN THE BACTERIUM Escherichia COLI", Doctoral Thesis, University of Wisconsin

  8. Lederberg, E. M., 1951, "Lysogenicity in E. coli K-12", Genetics 36:560 (abstract)
    Lederberg, E. M., 1950, "Lysogenicity in Escherichia coli strain K-12", Microbial Genetics Bulletin, 1, pp. 5-9, Jan. 1950, U. Wisconsin [Evelyn Maisel Witkin, Ed.], Ohio State University,
    ISSN: 0026-2579, call No. 33-M-4, OCLC: 04079516, Accession Number: AEH8282UW

    Note: The abstract in 'Genetics' is totally different from the 'Microbial Genetics Bulletin' publication, which has a far more detailed discussion of λ lysogenicity.
    Click to see references

  9. Lederberg, J., Lederberg, E. M., Zinder, N. D., Lively, E. R., 1951, "Recombination analysis of bacterial heredity", Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 16:413-443

  10. Lederberg, J., Lederberg, E. M., March 1952, "Replica plating and indirect selection of bacterial mutants", J. Bacteriol. 63(3):399-406         Click to see prepublication abstract and relevant information

  11. Lederberg, E. M., Sept. 1952, "Allelic relationships and reverse mutation in Escherichia coli", Genetics 37(5):469-483

  12. Lederberg, J., Cavalli, L. L., and Lederberg, E. M., Nov. 1952, "Sex compatibility in Escherichia coli", Genetics 37(6):720-730

  13. Lederberg, E. M., Lederberg, J., Jan. 1953, "Genetic studies of lysogenicity in Escherichia coli", Genetics 38(1):51-64

  14. Cavalli, L. L., Lederberg, J., Lederberg, E. M., Feb. 1953, "An Infective Factor Controlling Sex Compatibility in Bacterium coli", J. Gen. Microbiol. 8(1):89-103

  15. Lederberg, J., Lederberg, E. M., Dec. 1, 1953, "Untitled Report on Recent Studies of Recombination in Escherichia coli", 35 pages.

  16. Lederberg, E., 1954, "The inheritance of lysogenicity in interstrain crosses of Escherichia coli", Genetics, 39:282-302, 39:978 (abstract)

  17. Lederberg, E. M., 1955, "Pleiotropy for maltose fermentation and phage resistance in Escherichia coli K-12", Genetics 37:469-483
    Abstract: 1955, 40:581-582

  18. Lederberg, J., Lederberg, E. M., 1956, "Infection and Heredity", in Cellular Mechanisms in Differentiation and Growth (Dorthy Rudnick, Ed.), 14th Symp. Soc. Growth and Dev. (Princeton University Press), pp. 101-124

  19. Morse, M. L., Lederberg, E. M., Lederberg, J., 1956, "Transduction in Escherichia coli K-12", Genetics 41:142-156

  20. Morse, M. L., Lederberg, E. M., Lederberg, J., Sept. 1956, "Transductional heterogenotes in Escherichia coli", Genetics 41(5):758-779

  21. Lederberg, J., Holloway, B. W., Lederberg, E. M., Burnet, F. M., Fenner, F., Best, R. J., 1957, "Symposium on Bacterial and Viral Genetics (Canberra, August 1957)", Australian J. Sci. 20:71-76

  22. Lederberg, E., 1958, "Fine structure of Gal loci in Escherichia coli K-12", Tenth International Congress of Genetics, Montreal

  23. Lederberg, E. M., 1960, "Genetic and functional aspects of galactose metabolism in Escherichia coli K-12", Symp. Soc. Gen. Microbiol. X, Microbial Genetics, Great Britain, pp. 115-131

  24. Mäkelä, P. H., Lederberg, J., Lederberg, E. M., Oct. 1962, "Patterns of sexual recombination in enteric bacteria", Genetics 47(10):1427-1439

  25. Lederberg, Esther M. (as responsible experimenter, in collaboration with other members of the Genetics Department and the Instrumentation Laboratory at Stanford University), May 6, 1963, "The Exploitation of the Bacillus Subtilis Transforming System in a Bio-Satellite Experiment". This is not a published paper, but is an interesting proposal for exobiology research.
    Click here to see copy of proposal.
    Click here to learn why references to this proposal are difficult to find .

  26. Lederberg, E. M., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Lederberg, J., April 1964, "Interaction of streptomycin and a suppressor for galactose fermentation in E. coli K-12", Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S., 51:678-682

  27. Westley, J. W., Anderson, P. J., Close, V. A., Halpern, B., Lederberg, E. M., July 1967, "Aminopeptidase profiles of various bacteria", Applied Microbiol. 15(4):822-825

  28. Lederberg, E. M., Stocker, B. A. D., 1970, "Phase variation in rec mutants of Salmonella typhimurium", Bacteriol. Proc. p. 35 (abstract)

  29. Lederberg, E. M., Aug. 1970, "Transfer of F' lac to rec mutants of Salmonella typhimurium", Int. Cong. Microbiol. X, p. 60

  30. Lederberg, E. M., Brothers, L. L., Cohen, S. M., 1973, "Molecular properties of an F  lac+-tetracycline-resistance plasmid, in E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium, XIII Int. Cong. Genet. 74:s152
    This paper may also be listed under "Molecular properties of an F' lac-tetracycline-resistance plasmid in E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium".

  31. Lederberg, E. M., Cohen, S. N., Sept. 1974, "Transformation of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 by plasmid deoxyribose nucleic acid", J. Bacteriol. 119(3):1072-1074

  32. Garfield, E., Lederberg, E. M., 1976, "Plasmids: Medical and Theoretical Aspects",
    and "Is the Current System of Scientific Communication Adequate to the Age of Plasmid Engineering?"
    Third International Symposium on ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE, Castle of Smolenice, Czechoslovakia;
    S. MITSUHASHI, L. ROSIVAL, V. KRČNÉRY, Eds., pp 389-393

  33. Lederberg, E., 1976, "The Plasmid Reference Center", ASM News, 42, 705.
    Click to see relevant reference

  34. Lederberg, E., 1976, "The Plasmid Reference Center", Proc. Soc. Gen. Microbiol.,4 (Part I), iv.

  35. Campbell, A., Berg, D. E., Botstein, D., Lederberg, E. M., Novick, R. P., Starlinger, P., Szybalski, W.,
    "Nomenclature of transposable elements in prokaryotes", "DNA Insertion Elements, Plasmids, and Episomes"
    1977, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories, New York, 15 - 22
    1979, Gene, 5, 197 - 206 1

    1 Initially there was no accepted nomenclature for plasmids. Thus, various names were used, such as the following [plasmid, strain]:

    • [F, W1485]             (Wisconsin)
    • [F'lac, W3747]       (Wisconsin)
    • [ColBtryp, YS57]   (Yale)
    • [R6-5, C600]          (Stanford) Note that 'R' indicated that this plasmid conferred resistance
    • [pMB1, HB129]    (Stanford)
    As an increasing number of plasmids were discovered and used in research, the need for a systematic nomenclature was recognized and a committee designated to deal with this problem. The Plasmid Reference Center (PRC), with Esther M. Zimmer Lederberg as Director, took on this responsibility at Stanford University. The nomenclature expanded to include not only plasmids, but insertion sequences and transposon numbers. Directors at other centers were either doing the same thing as the PRC or had collections requiring similar attention; among them:
    • Barbara J. Bachmann
    • Naomi Datta
    • Pierre Frédérique
    • Ken Sanderson

  36. Lederberg, E., 1977, "The Plasmid Reference Center", Plasmid, 1, 123.

  37. Lederberg, E., 1978, "Preliminary and partial list of plasmid prefixes", Plasmid, 1, 2, 270-271.

  38. Lederberg, E., 1978, "The P", Microbial Genetics Bulletin, 44, 31-37

  39. Campbell, A., Berg, D. E., Botstein, D., Lederberg, E. M., Novick, R. P., Starlinger, P., Szybalski, W., March 1979, "Nomenclature of transposable elements in prokaryotes", Gene 5(3): 197-206

  40. Campbell, A., Starlinger, P., Berg, D. E., Botstein, D., Lederberg, E. M., Novick, R. P., Szybalski, W., July 1979, "Nomenclature of transposable elements in prokaryotes", Plasmid 2(3):466-473

  41. Lederberg, E. M., 1979, "Strategies of the Plasmid Reference Center", (Abstract) in the book Progress in Medicine: Plasmids, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

  42. Lederberg, E., 1980, "Genetic culture collections. The Plasmid Reference Center (PRC)", Microbial Genetics Bulletin, 48, 104-105.

  43. Lederberg, E. M., 1981, "The Plasmid Reference Center (PRC)", THE INTERNATIONAL PLASMID CONFERENCE on MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, PATHOGENICITY, and ECOLOGY OF BACTERIAL PLASMIDS, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, January 5-9, 1981, p-45
    also "Molecular Biology, Pathogenicity, and Ecology of Bacterial Plasmids", Levy, S. B.; Clowes, R. C.; Koenig, E. L. (Eds.), Plenum Press, New York, 1981, p. 625
    Click to see relevant reference

  44. Lederberg, E. M., 1981, "Plasmid Reference Center Registry of Transposon (Tn) Allocations Through July 1981", Gene 16(1-3):59-61

  45. Lederberg, E., 1982, "Errata", Gene, 18, 366

  46. Lederberg, Esther M., June 1983, "Research Service: Plasmid Reference Center", Research Resources Reporter, VII, 6, 13 - 14

  47. Lederberg, Esther M., Oct. 14, 1985, "Interview with Esther M. Lederberg", "Interviews with Nobel Lureates and other Eminent scholars", The Bhaktivedanta Institute, 49 - 56

  48. Lederberg, E. M., Jan. 1986, "Plasmid Prefix Designations Registered by the Plasmid Reference Center: 1977-1985", Plasmid 15(1):57-92

  49. Lederberg, E. M., 1987, "Plasmid Reference Center Registry of Transposon (Tn) and Insertion Sequence (Is) Allocations Through December 1986", Gene 51(2-3):115-118

The importance of temperate phage lambda and lysogenicity, transduction by phage lambda, and co-development of replica plating has been noted in "A Dictionary of Genetics", by Robert C. King and William D. Stansfield, Oxford University Press, 14th Edition, 1990.

The "DNAtrium" exhibit at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the lobby of the Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute, a part of their exhibit on key discoveries in genetics and genomics over the eighteenth through twenty-first centuries, honors Esther Lederberg for the discovery of Lambda phage. See Institute MIT.html .

Dr. Esther M. Zimmer Lederberg worked with A. Hollaender at the NIH, moving to Yale after getting an M.A. at Stanford University (acknowledging the guidance of G. W. Beadle and E. L. Tatum). During summers, she worked on radiation-induced reverse mutation in at Cold Spring Harbor with A. Hollaender and M. Demerec. At the Osborn Botanical Laboratory at Yale, she did further research on radiation-induced reverse mutation in Neurospora with N. Giles. Her thesis advisor for her Ph.D. was the chairman of the Genetics Department, R. A. Brink. (See "The Emergence of Bacterial Genetics", by T. Brock, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1990, p. 88).

Other Papers Cited by Several Researchers

  1. Lederberg, E. M., Lederberg, J., 1953, "Genetic recombination in bacteria: Genetic evidence for sex in bacteria"
  2. Lederberg, E., 1950-1951, "Lysogenicity in E. coli", Genetics and Microbial Genetics Bulletin
  3. Lederberg, E., 1950-1951, "Lysogenicity and Transduction E. coli", referenced in 1957, "Symposium on Bacterial and Viral Genetics (Canberra, August 1957)", p. 71

Other names for Esther Lederberg that might be used on papers not yet identified

  1. Esther Zimmer
  2. E. Zimmer
  3. Esther Miriam Zimmer
  4. Esther M. Zimmer
  5. E. Miriam Zimmer
  6. E. M. Zimmer
  7. Esther Marilyn Zimmer
  8. E. Marilyn Zimmer
  9. Esther Lederberg
  10. E. Lederberg
  11. Esther Zimmer Lederberg
  12. E. Zimmer Lederberg
  13. Esther Miriam Lederberg
  14. Esther M. Lederberg
  15. E. Miriam Lederberg
  16. E. M. Lederberg
  17. Esther Miriam Zimmer Lederberg
  18. Esther Miriam Z. Lederberg
  19. Esther M. Zimmer Lederberg
  20. Esther M. Z. Lederberg
  21. Esther Marilyn Lederberg
  22. E. Marilyn Lederberg
  23. Esther Marilyn Lederberg
  24. Esther Marilyn Zimmer Lederberg
  25. Esther Marilyn Z. Lederberg

Of course, Esther's name may appear in languages using DIFFERENT character sets, such as Russian (Cyrillic), Hebrew, Chinese, etc. Some examples follow:

Russian (Cyrillic)
  1. Эстер М. Ледерберг
  2. Эстер Ледерберг
  3. Эстер Ц. Ледерберг
  4. Эстер Циммер Ледерберг
  5. Эстер Циммер
  6. Эстер М. Циммер
  1. אסתר מ. לדרברג
  2. אסתר לדרברג
  3. אסתר צ. לדרברג
  4. אסתר צימר לדרברג
  5. אסתר צימר
  6. אסתר מ. צימר
  1. ესტერი  ციმერი
  2. ესტერი  ლედერგერგი
  3. ესტერი  მარიამი  ციმერი
  4. ესტერი  მარიამი  ლედერგერგი
  5. ესტერი  ციმერი  ლედერგერგი
  6. ესტერი  მ.  ციმერი
  7. ესტერი  მ.  ლედერგერგი
  8. ესტერი  ც.  ლედერგერგი
  9. ესტერი  მარიამი  ციმერი  ლედერგერგი
  10. ესტერი  მ.  ციმერი  ლედერგერგი
  11. ესტერი  მარიამი  ც.  ლედერგერგი
  12. ესტერი  მ.  ც.  ლედერგერგი
  1. Ester Miriam Zimer Lederberg
Indian Languages

The proper use of names is significant, because a database search using an incorrect name might result in not finding papers written by a particular author. Examples of this exist on the National Library of Medicine web site created for Joshua Lederberg (where Esther, who began publishing under her married name immediately after her December, 1946 marriage to Joshua Lederberg, is referred to as "Esther Zimmer"; see ), (where most of the papers listed on this page are omitted), and on the web site for Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories, whose listing of Esther's papers is incomplete (10 of 46 papers, or 22%), and does not include two papers published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories (references #9 and #33, above), and five papers written under Esther M. Zimmer Lederberg's maiden name ("Esther M. Zimmer"), including those co-authored with M. Demerec, A. Hollaender, and N. H. Giles, Jr.

                  Click to verify (CSHL, Nov. 8, 2009)

Is this a simple omission? One might check the CSHL obituary notice for Esther M. Zimmer Lederberg to determine if errors are systematically made. The search will find no obituary notice at all. When Cold Spring Harbor Labs was contacted and asked why, the response was that the issue was "political". Gender discrimination, or just the "Old Boy Network"?

Possible Additional Papers or Proposals (most likely an incomplete list)

  1. University of Wisconsin, Madison Genetics Department: 1948 and 1949
  2. American Society of Microbiology (ASM) Science Advisory Board (S. A. B.): 1951
  3. Shelter Island Gene Conference: 1949
  4. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium XVI: 1951,
  5. Tower Hill: 1952
  6. Macy Conference: October 17, 1961
  7. West Coast Phage Meeting, Lake Tahoe: 1952 (noted by Tracy Sonneborn)
  8. Rutgers University: 1954
  9. CIBA Conferences: 1956, 1959
  10. The Burn, Scotland (Genetic Recombination): 1957
  11. Medical Genetics Symposium, Gatlinburg, Tennessee : 1958
  12. L'abbaye de Royaumont Conference I: 1958, Conference II: 1959
  13. Annual Transformation Meeting, Wind River Ranch, Estes Park, Colorado: June 14-16, 1965
  14. Medical Genetics Conference, University of Wisconsin, Madison: November 1958
  15. Tenth International Congress of Microbiology, Mexico City: 1970
  16. Gordon Conferences: 1971, 1972, 1980, 1986
  17. ASM Meeting, New York City: 1975
  18. Plasmid Conference: 1977
  19. EMBO Conference on Plasmids, Max-Planck-Institue in Berlin-Dahlem: 1978
  20. Munich Conference: 1978
  21. Boston Genetic Congress: 1982
  22. Keystone Conference, Stanford: 1983
  23. University of Massachusettes, Genetics Conference: 1986
  24. Nick Gronstrus Seminar, Stanford: Feb. 1986
  25. ASM or ICAAC Meeting: 1987
  26. International Congress of Genetics, Toronto: 1988
  27. Bacillus Conference, Stanford University: 1995


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